In this topic, you will develop knowledge and understanding of the principles of training and different training methods in order to plan, carry out, monitor and evaluate personal exercise and training programmes, through the following content. The topic guide will be linked here.

 

Health and Fitness

The terms 'health' and 'fitness' may be confused since fitness maintains health. 

Fitness can improve even if health is impaired eg. Depression could suggest you aren't emotionally healthy, however, you can still improve your fitness levels.

It's difficult to separate the two terms but:

 Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of the environment

and 

         Health is a state of complete emotional, physical and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.

Exercise is a form of physical activity done to maintain or improve health and/or fitness and is not necessarily competitive. Performance is the completion of a skill or activity.  

For the exam, you must understand the relationship between health, fitness, exercise and performance. 

 

Components of Fitness

Principles of Training 

 

The principles of training can be memorised with the acronym SPORIF where each letter stands for:

Specificity

Training should be matched to the requirements to the activity the performer is involved in. For example, a long distance runner may choose not to use circuit training as it's not specific enough for the performer.

 

Progressive Overload

This is when the F.I.T.T of an exercise of should gradually increase to ensure levels of fitness continue to improve. A weightlifter may choose to increase their load by 5KG per session to show an increase in strength.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overtraining

This occurs when you train too hard and do not give yourself enough time to rest and recover, which may lead to an injury.

 

Reversibility

These are adaptations made if training stops. Results of training will be reversed. If muscles aren't used they decrease in mass, this is called muscular atrophy

 

Individual Needs

These are adjustments made to fit the performer's needs. If a performer has asthma, they may want to avoid activities too strenuous as it can lead to an asthma attack. However, in order to improve the condition, the performer may choose to increase the intensity of their training, but they would have to decide when the activity is too much.

F.I.T.T Principle (mentioned above)

Frequency
Definition
Deciding how long to train
Type
Time
F.I.T.T Principle
Intensity
Adaptations of the methods of training
How often you will train
How hard you will train

Thresholds of Training

To train effectively you must know:

  • Your level of fitness before training.

  • The amount of aerobic training you need for your sport.

  • The amount of anaerobic training you need for your sport.

For example, shotputters use mainly anaerobic training and marathon runners use mainly aerobic training.

Maximum heart rate is calculated by taking away your age from 220 (220 is the maximum heart rate of a newborn baby, your maximum heart rate decreases as you age)

 

Aerobic target zone = 60-80% of your maximum heart rate

Anaerobic target zone = 80-90% of your maximum heart rate

   (These can be calculated using the Karvonen formula)

The Simplified karvonen formula

To find your target heart rate you can use this formula:

Target Heart Rate = (Maximum HR x Intensity)

So if a 20 old were to use the formula to find out their aerobic target zone (60-80% of the maximum HR) it will look like this:

(220-20 x 0.6

                                      60% =120

(220-20 x 0.8) =

                                      80% = 160

                    So, their aerobic target heart rate would be 120-160 bpm.

 

Training Methods and Suitability 

Fartlek Training 

Fartlek training (speed play) is training with different intensities and can be done with different activities (like cycling).

Walk

Jog

Run

Sprint

Positives of this method:

  • Useful for games players (who change speed). 

  • More varied than continuous training.

  • Anaerobic and aerobic exercise is done.

Negatives of this method:

  • May require access to different terrains.

  • May become repetitive and boring.

Interval Training 

Interval training involves time slots of training with periods of timed rest. It can be organised in reps and sets, depending on the exercise used

Positives of this method:

  • Improves aerobic and muscular endurance

  • can be changed from aerobic and anaerobic exercise

Negatives of this method:

  • Might become boring and repetitive  

  • Higher intensities may be difficult for the performer

Polymetric Training 

This method of training involves a series of explosive movements and is also known as "jump training"

Positives of this method:

  • Improves muscular power and strength

 

Negatives of this method:

  • High risk of injury

Aerobics

This method of training involves a series of explosive movements and is also known as "jump training"

Positives of this method:

  • Improves muscular power and strength

 

Negatives of this method:

  • High risk of injury

Pilates

Positives of this method:

  • Improves muscular power and strength

 

Negatives of this method:

  • High risk of injury

Weight Training 

This is a method of interval training, with time being organised with sets and repetitions.

Positives of this method:

  • Improves strength, power and muscular endurance.

  • There's a range of lifts that can be used, focussing on different muscle groups.

Negatives of this method:

  • May require equipment.

  • May not be appropriate for young athletes.

  • May require another person (a spotter).

Circuit Training 

Circuit training involves a series of stations, designed to improve a fitness goal

Positives of this method:

  • You can work on various areas of fitness

  • Can be tailored for the performer, this can make it entertaining for them

Negatives of this method:

  • Might not be specific enough for the performer   

  • May require too much space and equipment

Continuous Training 

This method of training takes at least 20 consecutive minutes of aerobic work

Positives of this method:

  • Improves aerobic and muscular endurance

Negatives of this method:

  • Might become boring and repetitive  

  • May not be specific to the performer 

Body Pump

This method of training takes at least 20 consecutive minutes of aerobic work

Positives of this method:

  • Improves aerobic and muscular endurance

Negatives of this method:

  • Might become boring and repetitive  

  • May not be specific to the performer 

Yoga

This method of training takes at least 20 consecutive minutes of aerobic work

Positives of this method:

  • Improves aerobic and muscular endurance

Negatives of this method:

  • Might become boring and repetitive  

  • May not be specific to the performer 

This method of training involves a series of explosive movements and is also known as "jump training"

Training Methods and Suitability 

Fartlek Training 

Fartlek training (speed play) is training with different intensities and can be done with different activities (like cycling) across various terrains.

Walk

Jog

Run

Sprint

Positives of this method:

  • Useful for games players (who change speed). 

  • More varied than continuous training.

  • Anaerobic and aerobic exercise is done.

Negatives of this method:

  • May require access to different terrains.

  • May become repetitive and boring.

Interval Training 

Interval training involves time slots of training with periods of timed rest. It can be organised in reps and sets, depending on the exercise used.

Positives of this method:

  • Improves aerobic and muscular endurance

  • can be changed from aerobic and anaerobic exercise

Negatives of this method:

  • Might become boring and repetitive  

  • Higher intensities may be difficult for the performer

Plyometric Training 

This method of training involves a series of explosive movements and is also known as "jump training".

Positives of this method:

  • Improves muscular power and strength

 

Negatives of this method:

  • High risk of injury

Aerobics

Aerobics is a form of rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretching and strength training routines.

Positives of this method:

  • Improves muscular and aerobic endurance

  • Can be adapted to be in water or as dance

 

Negatives of this method:

  • High impact exercise may stress bones, joints, tendons and ligaments 

Pilates

Pilates is a form of exercise, similar to yoga, but focuses more on strength and movements of low impact flexibility.

Positives of this method:

  • Develops coordination

  • Improves balance

  • Increased strength

  • Can be used for injury rehabilitation

  • Can be adapted for the performer

Negatives of this method:

  • Not as strenuous as other training methods 

  • Doesn't focus on cardiovascular training 

Weight Training 

This is a method of interval training, with time being organised with sets and repetitions.

Positives of this method:

  • Improves strength, power and muscular endurance.

  • There's a range of lifts that can be used, focussing on different muscle groups.

Negatives of this method:

  • May require equipment.

  • May not be appropriate for young athletes.

  • May require another person (a spotter).

Circuit Training 

Circuit training involves a series of stations, designed to improve a fitness goal.

Positives of this method:

  • You can work on various areas of fitness

  • Can be tailored for the performer, this can make it entertaining for them

Negatives of this method:

  • Might not be specific enough for the performer   

  • May require too much space and equipment

Continuous Training 

This method of training takes at least 20 consecutive minutes of aerobic work.

Positives of this method:

  • Improves aerobic and muscular endurance

Negatives of this method:

  • Might become boring and repetitive  

  • May not be specific to the performer 

  • It's time consuming

Body Pump

Body pump is a workout using light to moderate weights with many repetitions and works on all major muscle groups.

Positives of this method:

  • Improves muscular endurance

  • Focuses on all major muscle groups

Negatives of this method:

  • Might be time consuming

  • Might not be helpful for those wanting to improve strength

Yoga

Yoga is a form of exercise that focuses on strength and flexibility to boost physical and emotional well being.

Positives of this method:

  • Improves flexibility 

  • Improves static strength

Negatives of this method:

  • Might become boring

  • If done incorrectly, it could lead to injury 

Spinning

Positives of this method:

  • Improves aerobic and muscular endurance

  • Improves power 

Negatives of this method:

  • Might become boring and repetitive  

  • Might not be specific to performer because of the muscle groups needed

 
 

Long-term Effects of Exercise

Long-term effects are those that take place over a period of regular training this can be between six weeks and one year. 

Effects on the Cardiovascular System

When exercising for a long period, your heart rate decreases. This means your heart will be stronger and you will recover faster.

  • Recovering quicker means that there would be less chance of getting cramps or muscle fatigue, as there would be no build up of lactic acid as your body will be able to repay the oxygen debt more efficiently.

  • Your heart will reach its maximum cardiac output. Reaching your maximum cardiac output means your heart will work more systematically as it can transport the most amount of blood possible.

  • Exercise leads to an increased size/strength of heart, increased capillarisation, increase in a number of red blood cells and a drop in resting blood pressure due to the more elastic muscular wall of veins and arteries.

Effects on the Respiratory System

Partaking in exercise benefits the respiratory system in the following ways:

  • It increases the lung capacity and vital capacity. This means the intake of oxygen done by the lungs increases,

  • It also strengthens the intercostal muscles (between your ribs that allow your lungs to take in the greatest amount of air).

  • Your diaphragm strengthens as well, as it contracts (and relaxes) at a faster rate when doing physical activity.

  •  It also increases the number of alveoli which enhances the rate of gaseous exchange.

Effects on the Muscular System

Physical activity affects the muscular system in the ways listed below:

 

  • After working out your muscles over a long period of time, muscular hypertrophy takes place (the opposite of muscular atrophy which may happen if you live sedentarily).

  • It also strengthens tendons because of using them repetitively.

  • Muscular endurance will increase (again because of using them repetitively).

Effects on the Skeletal System

Exercise affects the skeletal system in the following ways:

  • Increases bone density. This decreases the risk of osteoporosis which is a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue.

  • Exercise also increases the strength of the ligaments, this then decreases the risk of an injury.

 

Optimising Training and Preventing Injury

PARQ

The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (also known as the PARQ) asses the personal readiness for training. This allows recommendations for changes to the training if need be.

Injuries

Injuries in sport/physical activity are either be open or closed

Fractures

A fracture is a hard tissue injury. They are painful due to nerve damage and lead to bruising, swelling and immobility in the area. They can be open or closed. If the fracture breaks the skin, its known as an open/compound fracture. There are more serious than closed fractures as they include blood loss. A fracture which doesn't break the skin is called a closed/simple fracture.

Abrasions 

Abrasions and grazes are when the skin is scraped off the body. Grazes that result from falls can often contain dirt and grit, so should be cleaned carefully. Cuts need to be cleaned. Plasters and dressings may be used to control bleeding to allow the wound to clot. Deep cuts may need stitches to hold the skin together.

Dislocations

A dislocation is when a bone is pulled or twisted out of place at a joint. Symptoms include: swelling, sever pain and possible immobility in the area.

Sprains

A sprain occurs when ligaments at a joint get stretched and torn. Symptoms are similar to those of a fracture or dislocation.

Strains - Golfer's Elbow and Tennis Elbow

A strain takes place when a muscle is suddenly overstretched. This tears the fibres, usually where they attach to the tendon. Golfer's and Tennis elbow is a chronic injury caused by repeated powerful contractions.

Concussions

Concussions are caused by impacts to the head, causing the fluid surrounding the brain to move. Symptoms may include headache, nausea, blurry vision or mood changes. Concussions are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause serious symptoms that require medical treatment.

Torn Cartilage 

Any activity that causes you to forcefully twist or rotate your cartilage at a joint, especially when putting your full weight on it can lead to a tear. An example of this is a torn meniscus in the knee. They are common with dislocations and have similar symptoms such as pain and swelling in the area.

Injury Prevention

Injuries can be prevented through the correct applications of the techniques:

Correct Application of the Principles of Training

If you do not overtrain, you can decrease the chances of overuse injuries.

Correct Usage of Equipment

Equipment you play with must be in good condition, up to date and used correctly. In hockey, the sticks must be used to hit the ball and not others.

Following the Rules of the Activity

In non-contact games, if contact is made between two performers, it's a foul. Certain rules are put in place to decrease the chance of injury.

Checking Facilities and Equipment Before Use

Before sporting commences, teachers or officials must check that the playing area is safe, if there are any hazards, they must be removed.

Appropriate Protective Clothing 

Generally, you should wear comfortable clothes that allows a full range of movement. Depending on the sport, protective clothing varies, In dangerous sports, protective gear like gumshields and body armour could be worn.

Whenever there's an injury to bones: joints, ligaments, muscles and blood vessels will be damaged. This will lead to swelling, bruising and pain.

To heal this you should follow the R.I.C.E method of treatment:

To prevent further injury, you must stop moving the place of injury.

Rest

Ice is used to slow down blood flow. An ice pack or a cold object must be placed

Ice

Compression is used to help decrease swelling an internal bleeding

Compression

This minimises swelling, it is best to keep the injury above heart level

Elevation

Performance Enhancing Drugs

PEDs are drugs used to gain an unfair advantage. Using most of these drugs are banned and illegal, however not all are.

Anabolic Steroids

These drugs mimic the male hormone, testosterone and stimulate muscle growth. They may be used by weightlifters, to gain muscle mass.

Positives of the usage:

  • Increases strength and recovery.

  • They burn fat.

  • Increase in muscle mass to improve strength, power and muscular endurance for better performance.

Negatives of the usage:

  • Causes mood swings.

  • If large quantities are taken, it can lead to heart disease.

  • There is a threat of testicular atrophy

  • Causes growth of body and facial hair in females

  • High blood pressure

  • Enlarged breasts on men.

GH (Growth Hormone) and EPO (erythropoietin)

GH and EPO are naturally occuring peptide hormones

Positives of the usage EPO:

  • Increases the number of red blood cells

  • Increases cardiovascular endurance

  • Increases resistance to fatigue and shorter recovery time.

Negatives of the usage EPO:

  • Increases blood pressure.

  • Decreases body’s capability to produce EPO naturally.

  • Increases blood viscosity (increased risk of heart attack or stroke).

Blood Doping 

This includes removing the blood from the body and re-transfusing it back into the body after red blood cells are replaced

Positives of blood doping:

  • Allows blood to carry more oxygen.

  • Improves cardiovascular endurance in the short term therefore allowing performer to train for longer.

Negatives of blood doping:

  • May lead to heart and kidney failure

  • Increased risk of blood clots.

Beta Blockers

Beta blockers work by decreasing the heart rate and stopping the transport of adrenaline.

Positives of the usage:

  • Keeps a performer calm and prevents a performer’s hands from shaking.

Negatives of the usage:

  • Can interact with other medicines the performer may be using

  •  Lowering HR too much can be dangerous - can lead to heart failure.

Stimulants

Stimulants work by slowly increasing levels of dopamine. Caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine and amphetamines are examples.

Positives of the usage:

  •  Decreases reaction time 

  • Masks fatigue (caused by physical activity)

  • Increased energy, prolonging performance.

Negatives of the usage:

  • May lead to addiction and heart failure

  • Increased aggression, RHR and blood pressure.

Diuretics

Diuretics make it harder for the kidneys to reabsorb water and increases the passing of urine as well as creating an imabalance of minerals.

Positives of the usage:

  • Can be used to lose weight rapidly (can be used to "make a weight"

  • Can be used to mask the usage of other drugs 

Negatives of usage:

  • Leads to dehydration

  • Risk of: kidney failure, heart failure, muscle cramps, headaches and dizziness

Narcotic Analgesics

Narcotic analgesics are painkillers, examples include codeine and morphine.

Positives of the usage:

  • Allows an injured athlete continue training and tolerate more pain

 

Positives of the usage GH:

  • Helps build muscle, leading to increased strength.

  • Increase in metabolic rate, which helps burn more fat.

  • Quickens recovery from fatigue and muscle injuries.

Negatives of the usage GH:

  • May lead to abnormal growth, heart disease, diabetes and arthritis.

  • Causes swelling.

Negatives of the usage:

  • It’s very dangerous and can lead to greater injury

  • Addictive, can lead to further injury, can affect balance and coordination.

Warm-ups and Cool Downs

 

Importance of Warming Up and Cooling Down 

Warm Ups

It is important to warm up physically and psychologically before participating in any physical activity. Warming up physically prevents the tearing of tendons, this increases elasticity of muscles.

A warm up must include:

  • Pulse raisers such as heel flicks, high knees etc

  • Stretches

      and 

  • Drills specific to the sport.

Cool Downs

In order to get rid of lactic acid that may build up in the working muscles, it's important to cool down. By cooling down, the muscles will have less chance of cramping.

A cool down must include:

  • Pulse lowering such as light jogging

  • Static stretching

      and 

  • Developmental stretching.

Copyright © 2018 SternoPE - By Anesa Begum