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The introduction sets the tone of your PEP. Here, you write about your aims of your PEP and a vague description as to why it's important to your activity/sport. After this, you will also have to mention your PARQ (which should be available for your moderator to see as an appendix as it doesn't count to the word count).

Planes and Axes

Recording Results

The Cardiovascular system works as a double circulatory system and serves three major functions:

                                         1) Transporting oxygen around the body

                                                     2) Helping blood clot


                                                3)Controlling body temperature

To find out how the heart contracts to pump blood around the body, skip to 3:12

Vasodilation, vasoconstriction and vascular shunting

Homeostasis is the regulation of conditions in the body. One of these conditions is temperature.

Vasodilation is the dilation of blood vessels, this allows the blood to get closer to the surface of the skin so that it can lose its heat. This happens when you're hot. Vasoconstriction, on the other hand, is the narrowing of blood vessels which does the opposite of vasodilation and keeps the heat of the blood in. This happens when you're cold.

Vascular Shunting is the redistribution of blood. Blood is directed away from inactive areas to active areas of the body.


-Have a very thin wall which helps diffusion

-Has a very small lumen

-Where gas exchange takes place


-Have thick layer of elastic and muscular fibres

-Have a small lumen 


-Have a large lumen

-Have a thin layer of muscle and elastic fibres.

-Have valves because of the low pressure and to prevent backflow. 

Designing the PEP

Anaerobic respiration is the process of producing cellular energy without oxygen. This is why anaerobic respiration occurs when short outbursts of movement take place (like in a sprint). Whereas, aerobic respiration is the process of producing cellular energy with oxygen. Aerobic respiration produces energy which can be used for a longer amount of time (like in a long distance event). 

Fat is used as an energy source for anaerobic activity (that's the reason why long distance runners are usually ectomorphs as they use their fat sources).

Carbohydrates are a source for both anaerobic and aerobic activity (that's why athletes may "carbo-load" in order to increase the amount of Glycogen in the muscles). Carbohydrates are a source for both anaerobic and aerobic activity (that's why athletes may "carbo-load" in order to increase the amount of Glycogen in the muscles)

Carbohydrates are converted into glucose.

which can be used as a fuel in energy production.

Carrying out Programme

Effects on the Cardiovascular System

There will be an increase in cardiac output and stroke volume.

Cardiac Output is simply the amount of blood the heart pumps out per minute.

To work out Cardiac Output you use this formula:

CO = SV x HR


Stroke Volume, however, is the volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per heartbeat. 

Effects on the Respiratory System

Tidal volume and rate of breathing increases.


Tidal volume is the volume of air inhaled at each normal breath. This will increase when doing physical activity because of the need for oxygen the working muscles require.

Effects on the Muscular System

Muscular fatigue and there will be lactate accumulation.


Lactic acid builds up in muscle fibres after respiring anaerobically. This also leads to an oxygen debt (that's why the muscles cramp up and fatigue)

Post Training Results

Effects on the Cardiovascular System

When exercising for a long period, your heart rate decreases. This means your heart will be stronger and you will recover faster.


-Recovering quicker means that there would be less chance of getting cramps or muscle fatigue, as there would be no build up of lactic acid as your body will be able to repay the oxygen debt more efficiently.


-Your heart will reach its maximum cardiac output. Reaching your maximum cardiac output means your heart will work more systematically as it can transport the most amount of blood possible.


-Exercise leads to an increased size/strength of heart, increased capillarisation, increase in a number of red blood cells and a drop in resting blood pressure due to the more elastic muscular wall of veins and arteries.

Effects on the Respiratory System

Partaking in exercise benefits the respiratory system in the following ways:


-It increases the lung capacity and vital capacity. This means the intake of oxygen done by the lungs increases,

-It also strengthens the intercostal muscles (between your ribs that allow your lungs to take in the greatest amount of air).

-Your diaphragm strengthens as well, as it contracts (and relaxes) at a faster rate when doing physical activity.


-It also increases the number of alveoli which enhances the rate of gaseous exchange.


Effects on the Muscular System

Physical activity affects the muscular system in the ways listed below:


-After working out your muscles over a long period of time, muscular hypertrophy takes place (the opposite of muscular atrophy which may happen if you live sedentarily).


-It also strengthens tendons because of using them repetitively.


-Muscular endurance will increase (again because of using them repetitively).

Effects on the Skeletal System

Exercise affects the skeletal system in the following ways:


- Increases bone density. This decreases the risk of osteoporosis which is a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue.


-Exercise also increases the strength of the ligaments, this then decreases the risk of an injury.

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